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Full text of "Physiology at Harvard"

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PHYSIOLOGY AT HARVARD 



BY 



WILLIAM TOWNSEND PORTER, M.D. 

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OP PHYSIOLOGY IN THE 
HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL 



CO'.UMBIA UNIVERSITY 

iFPA2T;VIENT OF PHYSIOLOGY 

F.GR :>F PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS* 
W -VEST FIFTY NINTH STREET 

NEW YORK 



THE UNIVERSITY PRESS 
Camfcrfoge, 
1902 



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PHYSIOLOGY AT HARVARD 



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PHYSIOLOGY AT HARVARD 



BY 



WILLIAM TOWNSEND PORTER, M.D. 

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF PHYSIOLOGY IN THE 
HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL 



THE UNIVERSITY PRESS 

(Eamfcrituje, fHass. 

1902 



BIOLOG1 LIHR. 



Copyright, 1902 

BY WILLIAM T. PORTER 



UBRARV 



CONTENTS 
I 

THE LABORATORY METHOD 

INTRODUCTION 1 

OLD AND NEW 2 

WAYS AND MEANS 2 

II 

THE FIRST- YE A n COURSE 

INSTRUCTION GIVEN EACH STUDENT 6 

PROGRAM 7 

INSTRUCTIONS TO STUDENTS 8 

LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS 10 

Pairing Distribution of time Experiments performed. 

EXPERIMENTS ON MUSCLE AND NERVE 13 

Methods of electrical stimulation Stimulation of muscle 
and nerve Chemical and mechanical stimulation Irri- 
tability and conductivity The electromotive phenomena 
of muscle and nerve The change in form. 

ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS ON MUSCLE AND NERVE . . 15 
Methods of electrical stimulation Chemical and mechani- 
cal stimulation Irritability and conductivity The 
electromotive phenomena of muscle and nerve The 
change in form. 

SPINAL CORD AND BRAIN 18 



M903902 



VI CONTENTS 

SYMPATHETIC 19 

CUTANEOUS SENSATIONS 19 

Sensations of temperature Sensations of pressure. 
TASTE, SMELL, HEARING 20 

PHYSIOLOGICAL OPTICS 20 

Introduction Refraction in the eye The schematic eye 
Accommodation Ophthalmoscopy. 

VISION, DIGESTION, ABSORPTION, LYMPH, BLOOD, SECRE- 
TION, RESPIRATION, METABOLISM 22 

THE CIRCULATION op THE BLOOD 22 

The pressure-pulse The innervation of the heart and 
blood-vessels. 

APPARATUS 24 

LABORATORY NOTE-BOOK 25 

CONFERENCE 25 

WRITTEN TESTS 20 

SPECIAL DEMONSTRATIONS 28 

RECITATIONS 29 

THESES AND THE READING OF INVESTIGATIONS .... 29 
Instructions for thesis. 

THESES TO BE DISCUSSED IN 1902 33 

THESES TO BE WRITTEN BUT NOT DISCUSSED IN 1902 . 35 

LECTURES 37 

Calendar. 
OPTIONAL LECTURES 39 

SPECIAL EXPERIMENTAL WORK 41 

EXAMINATIONS 41 

Practical examination Written examination. 

Ill 

THE ADVANCED COURSE 47 



CONTENTS Vll 

IV 

PHYSIOLOGICAL RESEARCH 48 

V 

THE SUMMER COURSE . 52 

APPENDIX 

APPARATUS 53 

REQUISITION BLANK. 61 

FIRST ISSUE OF APPARATUS 62 

SECOND ISSUE OF APPARATUS 64 

FIRST RETURN OF APPARATUS 65 

APPARATUS LIABLE TO BE BROKEN 66 



PHYSIOLOGY AT HAEVAKD 

I 

THE LABORATORY METHOD 

INTRODUCTION 

THE new method of teaching physiology proposed 
in the Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, 1 De- 
cember 29, 1898, and more fully explained in the 
Philadelphia Medical Journal? September 1, 1900, 
was adopted by the Harvard Medical School in 
1899. The experience of two years has shown 
this method to be sound in theory and feasible in 
practice. It is my present purpose to state how 
far we have gone upon this new road. Such an 
account will provide the students in the Harvard 
Medical School with a working plan and will be 
useful to physiologists and to others who have 
to do with the teaching of the biological sciences. 
The present total lack of such precise accounts 
hinders progress. It is almost impossible to find 
out just what the individual student receives in 
the various universities. The experience of one 
university is not accessible to others. 

1 PORTER, W. T. : The teaching of physiology in medical 
schools, Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, December 29, 
1898, pp. 647-652. 

2 PORTER W. T. : The teaching of physiology, Philadelphia 
MedicalJournal, September 1, 1900. 

1 



PHYSIOLOGY AT HARVARD 



OLD AND NEW 

The traditional method of teaching physiology 
consists of a systematic course of lectures. The 
new method consists of a systematic course of 
experiment and observation by the student him- 
self. In the old method the student rests upon 
the dictum of the professor and the text-book. 
In the new he is thrown upon the fundamental 
experiments done with his own hands. In the 
old his experiments illustrate the lecture. In 
the new the lecture discusses his experiments 
and collates them with the work of others. The 
old insensibly teaches men to depend upon 
authority, but the new turns them to nature. 

WAYS AND MEANS 

The new method requires : 

1. Printed accounts of the fundamental ex- 
periments and observations in physiology, taken 
from the original sources, and arranged in the 
most instructive sequence. 

2. Accessory data grouped about the funda- 
mental experiments. Consider, for example, the 
function of the roots of spinal nerves. The fun- 
damental experiment here is Johannes Miiller's 
well-known section and stimulation of the nerve 
roots. The accessory data are such of the obser- 
vations and opinions of his successors as are 
necessary to give a clear picture of the present 
state of knowledge of this subject. The acces- 
sory data as well as the fundamental experiments 
should be taken as directly as possible from the 



THE LABORATORY METHOD 3 

original sources, and the reference should be given 
in each case. 

3. Apparatus of precision designed with the 
utmost simplicity upon lines that permit its 
manufacture in large quantities at small cost. 

It should be observed that this method serves 
for the instruction of all students from beginners 
to those engaged in research. The beginner per- 
forms the fundamental experiment in each group 
and studies the accessory data. If certain funda- 
mental experiments require too much time, the 
beginner limits himself in these cases to a study 
of the original protocol. The advanced student 
performs the fundamental experiments and as 
many of the accessory experiments as may give 
him the special training he desires. The research 
student has before him the classical observa- 
tions and original sources of the problem he has 
chosen. 

It should be noticed, also, that the new need 
not violently dislocate the old method of instruc- 
tion, but that it may replace it chapter by chapter 
as the means and the energy of the instructors 
permit. Harvard experience justifies this state- 
ment. Collections of fundamental and accessory 
experiments in the physiology of muscle, nerve, 
the circulation, the central nervous system, the 
skin, and physiological optics have been printed. 1 

1 PORTER, W. T. : An Introduction to Physiology. Part I. 
The Physiology of Muscle and Nerve, pp. 1-235. Second 
Edition .January, 1901. Part II. The Circulation, pp. 237-314. 
Parts I and II are hound together in green cloth. Part III. 
The Spinal Cord and Brain, in preparation. Meanwhile the 
principal experiments upon the cord and brain, together with 
those upon cutaneous sensations, have been printed in Experi- 



4 PHYSIOLOGY AT HARVARD 

These collections are being completed and im- 
proved as rapidly as possible, and the data for the 
remaining chapters are being brought together. 
In its final form this matter will constitute "A 
Laboratory Text-book of Physiology." l 

The Harvard Physiological Apparatus has been 
especially devised for the laboratory teaching of 
large numbers of students. The latest models of 
this apparatus are distinguished by their simplic- 
ity of design, sound workmanship, and low cost. 

With this equipment two hundred and ten 
students in the last collegiate year performed 
physiological experiments in the laboratories of 
the Medical School five mornings every week dur- 
ing four months. The new method was employed 
in the physiology of muscle and nerve, the circu- 
lation and the skin, and in physiological optics. A 
part of the physiology of the central nervous sys- 
tem was taught by the new method, the remainder 
by the old. The physiology of respiration and 
of other fields for which the necessary experi- 
ments and accessory data were not ready was 
taught entirely by the traditional system of 
lectures with demonstrations. 

During the present year, 1901-1902, the in- 
struction will be as follows : 

COURSES OFFERED IN 1901-1902 

1. First- Year Course. 3. Eesearch. 

2. Advanced Course. 4. Summer Course. 

ments for Harvard Medical Students, Second Series, 1902, pp. 
1-28, Second Edition. Part IV. Physiological Optics, pp. 1-96. 
Bound in gray paper. Other parts in prepai-ation. 
1 This title is copyrighted by W. T. Porter. 



THE FIRST-YEAR COURSE 



II 
THE FIRST-YEAR COURSE 

THE first-year course is required of all students. 
It is designed to give the general introduction to 
physiology that every Doctor of Medicine should 
possess. It is valuable also to biologists not in- 
tending to become physicians. The medical stu- 
dents who take this course have spent the first 
four months of the collegiate year in the study of 
anatomy, histology, and embryology. The morn- 
ings of the second four months, February, March, 
April, and May, are given to physiology ; and the 
afternoons of three of these months, February, 
March, and April, to physiological chemistry, 
which is now taught in the Chemical Depart- 
ment. 

The instruction given each student is shown 
in the accompanying tables, which will be fol- 
lowed by a description of the several exercises. 



PHYSIOLOGY AT HARVARD 



TABLE I 

SHOWING THE INSTRUCTION GIVEN EACH STUDENT IN 
THE FIRST-YEAR COURSE 



Number 
of Exer- 
cises. 


Character of Exercise. 


Hours of 
Instruc- 
tion. 


75 


Laboratory experiments. Professor W. 


180 




T. Porter and Drs. Cannon, Lillie, and 






Opitz. Daily, except Saturday. 




75 


Conference. Professor VV. T. Porter and 


36 




Dr. Cannon. Daily, except Saturday. 
First to fifteenth week, inclusive. 




75 


Written tests. Daily, except Saturday. 






First to fifteenth week, inclusive. 




50 


Lectures, with demonstrations. Profes- 


25 




sor W. T. Porter and Dr. Cannon. 






Daily, except Saturday. Sixth to fif- 






teenth u:eek, inclusive. 




15 


Special demonstrations. Professor W. 


15 




T. Porter and Dr. Cannon. Saturdays. 






First to fifteenth week, inclusive. 




15 


Recitations. Professor Bowditch. Sat- 


15 




urdays. First to fifteenth tceek, incltisivf. 




15 


Recitations. In sections. Professor W. 


11 




T. Porter and Dr. Cannon. Mondays. 






First to fifteenth week, inclusive. 




50 


Discussion of theses. The entire class 


40 




and the Staff. Daily, except Friday. 






Sixth to fifteenth week, inclusive. 




24 


Optional lectures. Professors Bowditch 


18 




and W. T. Porter, Drs. Cannon, Lillie. 






and Opitz. Afternoons in May, exce/>t 






Saturdays. (In 1900-1901 there were 






37 optional lectures.) 






Thesis. Written by each student from 






the original sources. 






Reading of investigations. The reading 






of one or more investigations in the 






original source and the discussion of 






these when the theses upon the same 






subjects are discussed. 






Special experimental work. Optional 






during the fifteenth and sixteenth 






weeks, for selected students. 





THE FIRST-YEAR COURSE 



TABLE II 
PROGRAM OF FIRST-YEAR COURSE 



SECOND HALF-YEAR. 


PHYSIOLOGY. FEBRUARY 8 TO MARCH 15. 


MONDAY. 


TUESDAY. THURSDAY. 
WEDNESDAY. FRIDAY. 


SATURDAY. 


9-9.30 


Conference. 
Room A. 


Conference. 
Room A. 






9.3O-9.5O 


Written Test. 
Room B. 


Written Test. 
Room B. 


9.50-12 


Laboratory 
Experiments. 
Room B. 


Laboratory Experiments. 
Room B. 


10-11 


Recita- 
tion. 
Room A. 


12-1 


Recitation. 
In Sections. 
Room B. 


11-12 


Demon- 
stration. 
Room A. 


MARCH 17 TO MAY 31. 


9-9.30 


Lecture. 
Room A. 


Lecture. 
Room A. 


9-9.45 


Discus- 
sion of 
Theses. 
Room A. 


9.3O-10 


Conference. 
Room A. 


Conference. 
Room A. 


1O-10.20 


Written Test. 
Room B. 


Written Test. 
Room B. 


10-11 


Recita- 
tion. 
Room A. 


1O.2O-12.15 


Laboratory 
Experiments. 
Rjom B. 


Laboratory Experiments. 
Room B. 


12.15-1 


Recitation. 
In Sections. 
Room B. 


Discussion of Theses. 
Room A. 


11-12 


Demon- 
stration. 
Room A. 


JUNE 1 TO JUNE 7. 


Laboratory Experiments. Room B. 



PHYSIOLOGY AT HARVARD 



INSTRUCTIONS TO STUDENTS 

Five weeks before the beginning of the course 
the following letter is sent to each student : x 

Form A. 

DEPARTMENT OF PHYSIOLOGY, 

HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL, 

January 2, 1902. 

DEAR SIR : 

Since many of the laboratory experi- 
ments in physiology require two men for their suc- 
cessful performance, the class will be divided into 
pairs. Students may work with whom they please, 
provided those desiring to work together give writ- 
ten notice to Professor W. T. Porter not later than 
February 1. Where no preference is expressed the 
pairing will be made from an alphabetical list. The 
distribution of the pairs at the laboratory desks will 
be posted on the bulletin board February 6. Stu- 
dents are advised to provide themselves with the 
following articles : 

1. A dissecting case, including scissors, one large 
and one small forceps, and a seeker. 

2. A small towel. 

3. A piece of cotton cloth about 40 X 40 cm. 

4. A microscope with a hinged standard allow- 
ing the stage to be tilted to a perpendicular 
position. One member of each pair may rent a 
microscope by applying to the Department of His- 
tology. Students now using a microscope of the re- 
quired kind may there arrange to keep it and their 
microscope locker during the second half-year. 

1 Letters, lists of apparatus, and similar matter for the use of 
students are printed upon the Rotary Neostyle. 



THE FIRST-YEAR COURSE 9 

5. The pamphlet entitled "Physiology at 
Harvard." 

6. The Physiological Laboratory Note-book. 

7. The Introduction to Physiology, Parts I and 
IT, bound together in cloth. To be had from W. 
B. Clarke Company, corner of Park and Tremont 
Streets, Boston. 

8. Experiments for Harvard Medical Students, 
Second Series, bound in gray paper. 

9. The Introduction to Physiology, Part IV, 
bound in gray paper. 

10. The Physiological Thesis Book. 

Articles 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9, and 10 are sold by the 
Co-operative Society. 

First-year medical and dental students will meet 
the Staff of the Department February 8, at 9 A.M., 
in Room A, where they will be addressed by 
Professor Bowditch. 

At 9.30 A.M. the students will find their desks in 
Room B. Each desk bears the names of the owners 
upon a printed slip. Each student will receive a 
key to the locker in his desk. For each key a de- 
posit of one dollar will be required, to be refunded 
when the key is returned. 

Within the cupboard and drawers of the locker 
will be found the apparatus necessary for the first 
work of the course, together with a printed list of 
the apparatus (see Appendix, Form G-, page 62). 
Articles marked* will be found in the small wooden 
boxes. The list should be verified and signed by 
each student. This receipt will be retained by the 
Department. 

The apparatus is issued in good condition, and 
students will be held responsible for its return in 
good condition. The cost of cleaning, repairing, 
or replacing articles which become damaged will 



10 PHYSIOLOGY AT HARVARD 

be charged to the students to whom they were 
issued. A list of the articles liable to be broken 
beyond repair is posted in the laboratories, with 
the cost opposite each (see Appendix, Form J, 
page 66). Students desiring additional apparatus 
must present a signed requisition for the desired 
article (see Appendix, Form F, page 61). 

Frogs and tortoises will be issued on the presen- 
tation of signed requisitions. Students using more 
than the average number of animals will be charged 
ten cents for each additional medium-sized frog, 
and twenty-five cents for each large frog and each 
tortoise. 

Every charge will be divided equally between 
the two members of the pair represented by the 
name on the requisition. 

You are advised to -keep this letter for reference. 
Very truly yours, 

W. T. PORTER. 



LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS 

In the laboratory the student works fourteen 
hours a week during six weeks, and ten hours a 
week during the ten other weeks of the course. 

Pairing. Many of the experiments cannot be 
done by one person alone. Others are per- 
formed more rapidly and with better results by 
two workers than by one. Moreover, discussion 
and mutual criticism are valuable. The class 
is therefore divided into pairs. Students are 
urged to select their comrades for themselves. 
Those who fail to choose are paired by lot. The 
pair usually decides to divide the experimental 
work so that upon one day the preparation of the 



THE FIRST-YEAR COURSE 11 

frog, or other material, shall fall to one student, 
while the arrangement of the apparatus shall fall 
to the other; the next day, these duties are 
exchanged. 

Distribution of Time. The sixteen weeks of 
experimentation are divided as follows: 

February 8-March 14. Muscle and nerve. 
March 17-25. Spinal cord and brain. 
March 26-27. Cutaneous sensations. 
March 28 April 1. Taste, smell, hearing. 
April 2-8. Physiological optics. 
April 9-11. Vision. 
April 13-19. Recess. 

April 22-May 2. Digestion, absorption, lymph, 
blood, secretion, respiration, metabolism. 
May 5-29. Circulation. 
May 30. Memorial Day a holiday. 
June 2-7. Practical examination. 

The physiology of muscle and nerve heads the 
list, for the logical reason that contractility and 
irritability are the primary attributes of living 
tissues and should be studied first, and for the 
practical reason that no field has been so thor- 
oughly worked as this and none is so well adapted 
to train the beginner in physiological technique 
and the physiologist's habit of thought. 

It will be observed that the time given to this 
subject is relatively greater than that given to 
any of the others. The greater training power 
of the physiology of muscle and nerve accounts 
for this in part. But the student's lack of skill 
and knowledge is the chief cause. When the stu- 



12 PHYSIOLOGY AT HARVARD 

dents begin the study of muscle and nerve they 
are as a rule unacquainted with experimentation 
upon living tissues. During the first two weeks 
they are slow and awkward. During the third 
week a remarkable change begins. At the fifth 
week it may be said without exaggeration that 
most of the students are rapid and fairly accurate 
experimenters. The experiments upon muscle 
and nerve, which require the mornings of five 
weeks at the beginning of the course, could at the 
end of the course be easily done in three. The 
experiments upon the circulation, which require 
four weeks in their present position, would re- 
quire at least six if placed at the beginning of 
the course. 

It should be said, further, that the work upon 
muscle and nerve includes certain experiments 
that are commonly taught under the heading of 
the nervous system. 

The students who enter the physiological course 
have already studied the special anatomy of or- 
gans the structure of which would otherwise be 
described by the physiologist. This rational prep- 
aration materially shortens the time required for 
certain chapters in physiology. 

The space assigned the vegetative functions is 
small because the laboratory work in the chem- 
istry of the carbohydrates, fats, proteids, bone, 
cartilage, muscle, salivary glands, stomach, pan- 
creas, bile, blood, milk, and urine is pursued at 
present in the Department of Chemistry. 

Experiments Performed. Following is a com- 
plete list of the experiments performed. Students 
are not permitted to pass to a new experiment 



THE FIRST-YEAR COURSE 13 

until the one in hand has been performed to the 
satisfaction of the instructors. Only work well 
done is accepted. 

PHYSIOLOGY OF MUSCLE AND NERVE 

Methods of Electrical Stimulation. The prep- 
aration of the gastrocnemius muscle, p. 4. The 
nerve-muscle preparation, p. 6. Galvani's experi- 
ment, p. 12. Polarization current, p. 25. Make 
and break induction currents as stimuli, p. 40. 
Tetanizing currents, p. 42. Exclusion of make 
or break current, p. 43. Unipolar induction, 
Experiments 1 and 2, pp. 44 and 45. 

Stimulation of Muscle and Nerve. Opening 
and closing contraction, p. 61. Changes in inten- 
sity of stimulus, Experiments 1 and 2, pp. 62 and 
63. Polar stimulation of muscle, Experiment 5, 
p. 68. Tonic contraction, p. 70. Physiological 
anode and cathode in rectus muscle, p. 72. Law 
of contraction, p. 75. Changes in irritability, Ex- 
periment 1, p. 79. Changes in conductivity, p. 
82. Stimulation of human nerves, p. 89. Stim- 
ulation of motor points, p. 92. Polar stimulation 
of human nerves, p. 93. Eeaction of degeneration, 
p. 97. Influence of duration of stimulus, Experi- 
ment 2, p. 101. Khythmic contraction, Experi- 
ment 1, p. 103. Polarization current, Experiment 
1, p. 106. Polar fatigue, p. 108. Polar inhibition 
by the galvanic current, Experiment 1, p. 114. 
Effect of the angle at which the current lines 
cut the muscle fibres, p. 118. Polar stimulation 
by the induced current, Experiment 2, p. 120. 

Chemical and Mechanical Stimulation. Effect 



14 PHYSIOLOGY AT HARVARD 

of distilled water, p. 124. Strong saline solu- 
tions, p. 125. Drying, p. 125. Normal saline, p. 
126. Importance of calcium, p. 126. Constant 
chemical stimulation may cause periodic contrac- 
tion, p. 126. Mechanical stimulation, p. 127. 

Irritability and Conductivity. The indepen- 
dent irritability of muscle ; curare experiment, p. 
132. Irritability and conductivity are separate 
properties of nerve, Experiment 1, p. 134. Min- 
imal and maximal stimuli ; threshold value, p. 

137. Summation of inadequate single stimuli, p. 

138. The same nerve fibre may conduct impulses 
both centripetally and centrifugally, Experiment 

1, p. 144. Speed of nerve impulse, p. 146. 

The Electromotive Phenomena of Muscle and 
Nerve. Demarcation current of muscle, Ex- 
periment 1, p. 150 (omit last three lines). 
Uninjured muscle, p. 153. Stimulation by de- 
marcation current, Experiment 1, p. 153. Meas- 
urement of electromotive force of demarcation 
current, compensation method, p. 158. Demarca- 
tion current of nerve, p. 159. Action current of 
muscle, Experiments 1 (rheoscopic frog) and 2, p. 
166. Action current of heart, Experiments 1 and 

2, p. 173. Action current of nerve ; negative 
variation, Experiment 1, p. 178. Secretion cur- 
rent from mucous membrane, p. 183. 

The Change in Form. The duration of the 
several periods, p. 196. The excitation wave, p. 
199. The contraction wave, p. 201. Influence 
of load on height of contraction, p. 204. Influence 
of temperature on form of contraction, p. 205. 
Superposition of two contractions, p. 209. Super- 
position in tetanus, p. 210. Muscle sound, Ex- 



THE FIRST-YEAR COURSE 15 

periments 1, 2, and 3, pp. 211-212. Eelation of 
shortening in a single contraction to shortening 
in tetanus, Experiments 1, 2, and 3, pp. 215- 
217. Graduation of isometric spring, p. 218. 
Isometric contraction, p. 219. Artificial tetanus 
of human muscle, p. 221. Natural tetanus of 
human muscle, Experiments 1 and 2, p. 221. 
Spontaneous contractions of smooth muscle, p. 

221. Simple contraction of smooth muscle, p. 

222. Tetanus of smooth muscle, p. 223. Influ- 
ence of load on work done, p. 223. Absolute 
force of muscle, p. 224. Total work done ; the 
work adder, p. 224. Time relations of developing 
energy, p. 226. Elasticity and extensibility of 
a metal spring, p. 229. Of a rubber band, p. 
230. Of skeletal muscle, p. 230. Fatigue of 
skeletal muscle of frog, Experiments 1 and 2, p. 
232. Fatigue of human skeletal muscle, Experi- 
ment 1, p. 233. 

Students better prepared than the average will 
finish the experiments on muscle and nerve in 
less than the average five weeks. Such men may 
perform the additional experiments on muscle 
and nerve provided below. 



ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS ON MUSCLE AND 
NERVE 

To be begun only in case the first list is finished in less 
than the prescribed five weeks. These additions comprise the 
experiments in the Introduction to Physiology, Part I, not 
included in the first list.^1 

Methods of Electrical Stimulation. Surface 
tension, p. 15. Surface tension altered by elec- 



16 PHYSIOLOGY AT HARVARD 

trical energy, p. 16. The cell, p. 21. Electrolysis 
of potassium iodide, p. 27. Graduation of the 
electrometer, p. 28. Magnetic induction, p. 30. 
Magnetic field; lines of force, p. 33. To pro- 
duce electric induction, the lines of magnetic 
force must be cut by the circuit, p. 33. Elec- 
tromagnetic induction, p. 33. Make and break 
induction, p. 34. The inductorium, pp. 35-37. 
Empirical graduation of inductorium, p. 38. The 
extra currents at the opening and closing of the 
primary current, Experiments 1 and 2, pp. 41-42. 
Induction in nerves, p. 43. Unipolar induction, 
Experiments 3, 4, 5, and 6, pp. 4549. Changes 
in intensity of stimulus with indirect stimula- 
tion, Experiments 1 and 2, pp. 63-64. Polar 
stimulation of muscle, Experiments 1, 2, 3, and 4, 
pp. 65-67. Polar stimulation in heart ; mono- 
polar method, p. 74. Changes in irritability, Ex- 
periments 2 and 3, pp. 79-81. Conductivity is 
diminished by strong or protracted currents in 
the cathodal as well as in the anodal region, p. 
85. Galvanotropism, p. 98. Influence of duration 
of stimulus, Experiments 1, 3, 4, and 5, pp. 100- 
102. Ehythmic contraction ; skeletal muscle, p. 
104. Continuous galvanic stimulation of nerve 
may cause the periodic discharge of nerve im- 
pulses, pp. 105-106. Polarization current; posi- 
tive variation, p. 107. Opening and closing 
tetanus, Experiments 1, 2, 3, and 4, pp. 108-110. 
Polar excitation in injured muscle, p. 112. Polar 
inhibition in veratrinized muscle, p. 116. Stimu- 
lation affected by the form of the muscle, p. 117. 
The induced current, Experiments 1, 3, and 4, pp. 
119-121. 



THE FIRST-YEAR COURSE 17 

Chemical and Mechanical Stimulation. Idio- 
muscular contraction, p. 127. 

Irritability and Conductivity. Nerve-free mus- 
cle, p. 130. Muscle with nerves degenerated, p. 
131. The nerve-free embryo heart, p. 131. Irri- 
tability and conductivity are separate properties 
of nerve; 2. Alcohol, p. 136. Threshold value 
independent of load, p. 138. Eelative excita- 
bility of flexor and extensor nerve fibres ; Kitter- 
Rollett phenomenon, p. 139. Specific irritability 
of nerve greater than that of muscle, p. 141. 
Irritability at different points of same nerve, p. 
142. The excitation wave remains in the muscle 
or nerve fibre in which it starts, p. 143. The 
same nerve fibre may conduct impulses both cen- 
tripetally and centrif ugally, Experiment 2, p. 145. 

The Electromotive Phenomena of Muscle and 
Nerve. Demarcation current of muscle, Experi- 
ment 2, p. 151. Oblique section, p. 152. Stimu- 
lation by demarcation current, Experiments 2, 3, 
and 4, pp. 154-155. Interference between the 
demarcation current and a stimulating current; 
polar refusal, p. 155. Measurement of electromo- 
tive force of demarcation current, Experiment 1, p. 
157. Nerve may be stimulated by its own demar- 
cation current, p. 160. The action current in 
tetanus ; stroboscopic method, p. 168. liheoscopic 
muscle tetanus, p. 169. Action current of human 
muscle, p. 172. Action current of heart ; the action 
current precedes the contraction, p. 174. Current 
of action of human heart, p. 175. Action current of 
nerve, Experiment 2, p. 179. Positive variation, p. 
179. Positive after current, p. 180. Contrac- 
tion secured with a weaker stimulus than nega- 



18 PHYSIOLOGY AT HARVARD 

tive variation, p. 180. Current of action in optic 
nerve, p. 181. Errors from unipolar stimulation, 
p. 183. Negative variation of secretion current, p. 
184. Electrotonic currents, p. 186. Negative 
variation of electrotonic currents ; positive varia- 
tion (polarization increment) of polarizing current, 
p. 188. The electrotonic current as a stimulus, p. 
191. Paradoxical contraction, p. 191. 

The Change in Form. Relation of strength of 
stimulus to form of contraction wave, p. 203. 
Influence of veratrine on the form of the con- 
traction, p. 208. Muscle sound, Experiments 4 
and 5, pp. 212-214. Total work done estimated 
by muscle curve, p. 226. Extensibility increased 
in tetanus, p. 231. Eatigue of skeletal muscle of 
frog, Experiment 3, p. 233. Fatigue of human 
skeletal muscle, Experiment 2, p. 234. 

SPINAL CORD AND BRAIN 1 

The spinal cord a seat of simple reflexes, 
Experiments 1 and 2, p. 1. Influence of afferent 
impulses on reflex action, p. 2. Threshold value 
lower in end organ than in nerve trunk, Experi- 
ments 1 and 2, pp. 2 and 3. Summation of affer- 
ent impulses, p. 3. Segmental arrangement of 
reflex apparatus, Experiments 1 and 2, p. 4. Re- 
flexes in man ; from the skin, p. 5. Cornea reflex, 
p. 5. Throat reflex, p. 6. Pupil light-reflex, p. 6. 
Consensual reflex, p. 6. Accommodation reflex, 
p. 6. Knee jerk, p. 6. Ankle jerk, p. 7. Gower's 
experiment, p. 7. Effect of strychnine on reflex 

1 Experiments for Harvard Medical Students. Second 
Series, pp. 1-20. 



THE FIRST-YEAR COURSE 19 

action, p. 8. Eemoval of cerebral hemispheres, 
p. 8. Posture, "brainless" frog, p. 9. Balancing 
experiment, p. 10. Retinal reflex, p. 10. Croak 
reflex, p. 10. Apparent purpose in reflex action, 
Experiments 1, 2, and 3, p. 12. Reflex time, p. 
13. Reaction time, p. 13. Reaction time with 
choice, p. 14. Inhibition of reflexes through 
peripheral afferent nerves, p. 15. Inhibition 
through central afferent paths ; the optic lobes, 
Experiments 1 and 2, p. 1 6. The roots of spinal 
nerves, p. 17. Localization of movement at 
different levels of the spinal cord, p. 18. Distri- 
bution of sensory spinal nerves, p. 19. Muscular 
tonus ; Brondgeests's experiment, p. 20. 

SYMPATHETIC 
[Experiments will be announced later.] 

CUTANEOUS SENSATIONS 1 

Sensations of Temperature. Mapping of hot 
and cold spots, p. 21. Outline, p. 21. Mechanical 
stimulation, Experiments 1 and 2, p. 21. Chemi- 
cal stimulation, p. 21. Electrical stimulation, p. 
22. Temperature after-sensation, p. 22. Balance 
between loss and gain of heat, p. 22. Fatigue, p. 

22. Relation of stimulated area to sensation, p. 

23. Perception of difference, p. 23. Relatively 
insensitive - regions, Experiments 1 and 2, pp. 23 
and 24 

Sensations of Pressure Pressure spots, p. 24. 
Threshold value, p. 24. Touch discrimination, 

1 Ibid., pp. 21-28. 



20 PHYSIOLOGY AT HARVARD 

Experiments 1 and 2, p. 26. After-sensation of 
pressure, p. 27. Temperature and pressure, p. 27. 
Touch illusion ; Aristotle's experiment, p. 28. 

TASTE, SMELL, HEARING 
[Experiments will be announced later.] 

PHYSIOLOGICAL OPTICS l 

Introduction. Angles of incidence and reflec- 
tion, p. 1. Concave mirrors; principal focus, Ex- 
periments 1, 2, and 3, pp. 3-5. Conjugate foci, 
Experiments 1, 2, and 3, pp. 5-6. Virtual image, 
Experiments 1 and 2, pp. 6-7. Construction of 
image from concave mirrors, p. 7. ^Refraction, 
Experiments 1 and 2, pp. 89. Construction of 
the path of a ray passing through a prism, p. 11. 
Eefraction by convex lenses ; principal focus, Ex- 
periments 1 and 2, p. 14. Estimation of principal 
focal distance, p. 15. Conjugate foci, p. 16. Vir- 
tual image, p. 17. Construction of image obtained 
with convex lens, p. 17. Refraction by concave 
lenses, p. 20. Refraction by segments of cylin- 
ders, Experiments 1 and 2, pp. 20-21. Refrac- 
tion through combined convex and cylindrical 
lenses, Experiments 1 and 2, pp. 22-23. Spheri- 
cal aberration by reflection, p. 24. Spherical 
aberration by refraction, Experiments 1, 2, and 3, 
pp. 25-26. Dispersion circles, Experiments 1 and 
2, p. 27. Myopia, p. 28. Hypermetropia, p. 29. 
Chromatic aberration, p. 30. Aberration avoided 

1 Introduction to Physiology, Part IV, Physiological Optics, 
pp. 1-99. 



THE FIRST-YEAR COURSE 21 

by a diaphragm, p. 32. Numbering of prisms, 
p. 33. Numbering of lenses, p. 38. 

Refraction in the Eye. The eye as a camera 
obscura, Experiments 1 and 2, p. 35. 

The Schematic Eye. Cardinal points of the 
cornea (System A}. Construction drawing of 
System A, p. 38. Principal focal distances, p. 39. 
Determination of principal foci by construction, 
2, p. 41. Construction of image, p. 41. Cardinal 
points of the crystalline lens (System B). Construc- 
tion drawing of System B, p. 43. Optical centre, 
p. 44. Nodal points, p. 45. Principal surfaces, 
p. 46. The point s, p. 47. Principal points, 
p. 48. Principal focal distances, p. 48. The car- 
dinal points of the eye (System C). Principal 
surfaces, p. 49. Nodal points, p. 51. Principal 
foci, p. 52. Calculation of the situation and size 
of dioptric images, Constructions 1 and 2, pp. 
54-56. Eeduced eye, p. 56. Relations of the 
visual axis, p. 61. Visual angle, p. 62. Apparent 
size, p. 62. Size of retinal image, p. 63. Acute- 
ness of vision, p. 63. Smallest perceptible image, 
p. 64. Measurement of visual acuteness, p. 64. 

Accommodation, p. 67. Schemer's experiment, 
p. 67. Dispersion circles, p. 68. Diameter of 
circles of dispersion, Experiments 1, 2, and 3, pp. 
68-70. Accommodation line, p. 70. Mechanism 
of accommodation. Narrowing of pupil, p. 71. 
Eelation of iris to lens, Experiments 1 and 2, pp. 
72-73. Changes in the lens, Experiments 1 and 
2, pp. 73-75. Measurement of accommodation. 
Far point, p. 77. Determination of far point, p. 
77. Near point, p. 78. Determination of near 
point, p. 78. Kange of accommodation, p. 79. 



22 PHYSIOLOGY AT HARVARD 

Ophthalmoscopy. Beflection from retina, Ex- 
periments 1, 2, 3, and 4, pp. 82-84. Influence of 
angle between light and visual axis, Experiments 

1, 2, and 3, pp. 85-86. Influence of size of pupil, 
p. 86. Influence of nearness to pupil, p. 86. 
Ophthalmoscope, Experiments 1 and 2, p. 87. 
Direct method. Emmetropia, Experiments 1 and 

2, pp. 88-90. Ametropia ; qualitative determina- 
tion, p. 91. Measurement of myopia, p. 91. 
Measurement of hypermetropia, p. 93. Measure- 
ment of astigmatism, p. 93. Indirect method, 
Experiments 1 and 2, pp. 94-96. 

VISION, DIGESTION, ABSORPTION, LYMPH, BLOOD, 
SECRETION, BESPIRATION, METABOLISM 

[Experiments to be announced later.] 

THE CIRCULATION OF THE BLOOD x 

Conversion of an intermittent into a continu- 
ous flow, Experiments 1, 2, and 3, pp. 244-248. 
The relation between rate of flow and width of 
bed, p. 248. The relation of peripheral resistance 
to blood-pressure, p. 250. The curve of arterial 
pressure in the frog, p. 251. The effect on blood- 
pressure of increasing the peripheral resistance in 
the frog, p. 253. Changes in the stroke of the 
pump ; inhibition of the ventricle, p. 253. The 
effect of inhibition of the heart on blood-pressure 
in the frog, p. 254. The opening and closing of 
the valves, p. 255. The period of outflow from 
the ventricle, p. 256. The visible change in form, 

1 Introduction to Physiology, Part II, pp. 239-314. 



THE FIRST-YEAR COURSE 23 

p. 257. Graphic record of ventricular contraction, 
p. 258. All contractions maximal, p. 258. Stair- 
case contractions, p. 259. The isolated apex ; Bern- 
stein's experiment, p. 259. Khythmic contractility 
of heart muscle, p. 260. Constant stimulus may 
cause periodic contraction, p. 260. The inactive 
heart muscle still irritable, p. 261. Kefractory 
period; extra-contraction; compensatory pause, p. 
261. The transmission of the contraction wave in 
the ventricle ; Engelmann's incisions, p. 262. The 
transmission of the cardiac excitation from auricle 
to ventricle; Gaskell's block, Experiments 1, 2, 
and 3, pp. 263 and 264. Tonus, p. 265. The in- 
fluence of " load " on ventricular contraction, p. 
265. The influence of temperature on frequency 
of contraction, p. 266. The action of sodium, cal- 
cium, potassium in heart muscle, pp. 266-268. 
The heart sounds, Experiments 1, 2, 3, and 4, pp. 
269-271. 

The Pressure-Pulse. Frequency, p. 271. Hard- 
ness, p. 272. Form, p." 272. Volume, p. 273. 
The pressure-pulse in the artificial scheme, p. 273. 
The human pressure-pulse curve, Experiments 1 
and 2, pp. 274-275. Low tension pressure-pulse, 
Experiments 1 and 2, p. 277. Pressure-pulse in 
aortic regurgitation, p. 278. Stenosis of the aortic 
valve, p. 279. Incompetence of the mitral valve, 
p. 280. The volume pulse, p. 280. 

The Innervation of the Heart and Blood-Vessels. 
Preparation of the sympathetic, p. 283. Action 
of the sympathetic on the heart, p. 284. The 
preparation of the vagus nerve, p. 286. Stimula- 
tion of cardiac inhibitory fibres in vagus trunk, p. 
287. Effect of vagus stimulation on the auriculo- 



24 PHYSIOLOGY AT HARVARD 

ventricular contraction interval, p. 289. Irrita- 
bility of the inhibited heart, p. 289. Intracardiac 
inhibitory mechanism, p. 290. Inhibition by 
Stannius ligature, p. 290. Action of nicotine, p. 
291. Atropine, p. 292. Muscarine, p. 292. Antag- 
onistic action of muscarine and atropine, p. 292. 
Inhibitory centre of the heart nerves, p. 292. 
Augmentor centre, p. 294. Eeflex inhibition of 
the heart; Goltz's experiment, p. 295. Eeflex 
augmentation, p. 296. The bulbar vasomotor 
centre, Experiments 1 and 2, pp. 296 and 297. 
The vasomotor functions of the spinal cord, Ex- 
periments 1, 2, and 3, p. 298. Effect of destruc- 
tion of the spinal cord on the distribution of the 
blood, p. 299. The vasomotor fibres leave the 
cord in the anterior roots of spinal nerves, Ex- 
periments 1 and 2, p. 300. Vasoconstrictor fibres 
in the sciatic nerve, p. 302. Vasodilator nerves, 
Experiments 1 and 2, p. 303. Eeflex vasomotor 
actions, p. 304. 

APPARATUS 

A complete list of the articles used in the first^ 
year course, including the additional experiments, 
page 15, will be found in the Appendix, pages 
53-61. 

The desk assigned each pair of students is 155 
cm. long and 61 cm. wide. A ledge 7 cm. high 
guards the farther side. At one end are placed 
a locker 35 crn. wide, and two drawers ; a 
single lock secures the three. Not all the appa- 
ratus used in the course can be placed in the 
locker and drawers at one time. That used in 



THE FIRST-YEAR COURSE 25 

the earlier chapters is issued first (see Appen- 
dix, Form G, page 62). Ffom time to time, 
articles of the first issue no longer in use are re- 
turned to the instructors (see Appendix, Form I, 
page 65). 

The department finds it advisable to maintain 
a stock of apparatus large enough to enable 
broken articles to be replaced at once from the 
reserve. Thus the student is not delayed while 
repairs are making; moreover, the repairing for 
the entire course can then be done in the sum- 
mer, after the instruction is finished. The ex- 
pense, per instrument, is thereby diminished. 

LABORATORY NOTE-BOOK 

Each student is required to keep in a labora- 
tory note-book an account of his own experiments 
and observations. The details of the experiment 
given in the laboratory publications should of 
course be omitted. Where the experiment in- 
cludes a graphic record, such as a muscle curve 
or a curve constructed upon coordinate paper, the 
record should be fastened in the laboratory note- 
book with gummed paper. Diagrams should be 
employed whenever necessary, but time should 
not be spent in needlessly detailed drawing of 
apparatus. The note-books will be collected 
every Friday and examined by the instructors. 

CONFERENCE 

The conferences are held in Eoom A for half 
an hour five times a week during fifteen weeks. 
They are devoted to questions and explanations 



26 PHYSIOLOGY AT HARVARD 

concerning the work of the course, and are in fact 
a combination of : recitation and lecture. The 
matters discussed are suggested by the written 
tests and by the questions placed by the students 
in question boxes, one of which is set in each 
laboratory. 

WRITTEN TESTS 

The written tests are exercises of twenty min- 
utes' duration, held daily during fifteen weeks. 
Two questions are asked, upon any part of the 
previous work. In all cases the student is re- 
quired to cite the experimental evidence for his 
statement. The answers are written upon ruled 
paper of uniform size, 24.5 x 19.5 cm., printed 
as follows : 

Form B. 

HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL, 

DEPARTMENT OF PHYSIOLOGY. 

Name Date 190 

Desk . .. Room . 



Each day's papers are filed in a case, in which 
a pigeon-hole is provided for each student. In 
the same pigeon-hole are placed in their turn 
the student's thesis, laboratory note-book, and 
final examination papers, constituting a complete 
record of his work. 

The written tests form, a most valuable method 
of instruction. They teach the student to state 
with precision and brevity the experimental evi- 
dence for many of the fundamental conclusions 



THE FIRST-YEAK COURSE 27 

in physiology. At the close of the first month of 
instruction men whose work the written tests 
show to be poor are personally consulted regard- 
ing their difficulties, often to their great benefit. 

The following questions illustrate the written 
tests : 

State experiments to prove where stimulation 
begins on closure of the galvanic current. Ex- 
plain the difference between the stimulating elec- 
trodes and the physiological anode and cathode 
in stimulation of human nerves. What is the 
reaction of degeneration ? What chemical changes 
take place in dying muscle ? Draw the curve ex- 
pressing the absolute force of muscle from the 
beginning to the end of the phase of rising energy 
and state how it is obtained. Mark on the intra- 
ventricular pressure-curve the moment of open- 
ing arid closing of the mitral and aortic valves. 
Give the experimental basis for an explanation 
of the auriculo-ventricular interval. Describe the 
action of the vagus nerve upon the heart. Give 
evidence to show that afferent impulses are trans- 
mitted by the posterior roots of spinal nerves. 
What evidence is there that the fibres passing 
through the white ramus communicans arborize 
about a sympathetic cell ? Cite experiments to 
prove that the crystalline lens changes its shape 
in accommodation. Give evidence that the semi- 
circular canals are concerned in equilibrium. 
State the evidence for the existence of hot and 
cold " spots " on the skin. State the difference 
between voice and tone. Give a brief account 
of the digestion of fat. Give proof of the exist- 
ence of internal secretion. What proof exists 



28 PHYSIOLOGY AT HARVARD 

that hemoglobin and oxygen are in loose chem- 
ical combination in the blood ? How may a 
nitrogen equilibrium be established? 

SPECIAL DEMONSTRATIONS 

A special demonstration is given every Satur- 
day during fifteen weeks. The subjects during 
1902 will be as follows: 

Feb. 15. (1) Surface tension altered by electrical 

energy. 
(2) Extra currents at the opening and 

closing of the primary current. 
March 1. Eeaction of degeneration in man. 
" 8. Action current of the human heart. 
" 15. Electromotive properties of an " arti- 
ficial nerve." 
" 22. (1) The action of the sympathetic on 

the smooth muscle of the hairs. 
(2) The pigeon deprived of cerebral 

hemispheres. 

" 29. Stimulation of the cerebral cortex. 
April 5. The pigeon with severed external semi- 
circular canals. 
" 12. The innervation of the sphincter of the 

iris. 

" 26. Movements of the stomach and intes- 
tines. 
May 3. The flow of lymph from the thoracic 

duct. 

" 10. The action of the chorda tympani and 
the sympathetic nerves on secretion 
by the submaxillary gland. 



THE FIRST-YEAR COURSE -29 

May 17. The action of the vagus and the supe- 
rior laryngeal nerves upon the re- 
spiratory movements. 
" 24. (1) The action of the valves in the ox 

heart. 
(2) The inhibition of the mammalian 

heart. 
" 31. (1) The action of the depressor nerve 

upon the vasomotor centre. 
(2) The vasomotor fibres in the cervi- 
cal sympathetic. 

The demonstrations are made to not more than 
ten students at one time. Care is taken that 
every student shall see the experiments clearly. 

BECITATIONS 

Two recitations are given weekly during fifteen 
weeks ; for one of these the class is divided into 
sections, each in charge of one instructor. The 
recitations are not examinations ; their only pur- 
pose is instruction. The questions are asked 
in an order that will systematically develop the 
subject treated. 



THESES AND THE BEADING OF INVESTIGATIONS 

Each student is required to write a physiologi- 
cal thesis, the material for which must be taken 
directly from the report of the original investi- 
gators. The subjects chosen are as a rule such 
as will supplement the instruction given in other 



30 PHYSIOLOGY AT HARVARD 

ways. In 1902 fifty-six theses will be discussed 
by the class. 

Before the beginning of the course the follow- 
ing letter of instructions is addressed to each 
student : 

Form C. 

INSTRUCTIONS FOR THESIS 

HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL, 

DEPARTMENT OF PHYSIOLOGY, 

BOSTON, February 1, 1902. 
DEAR SIR : 

In the first-year course in physiology, 
each student is required to write a physiological 
thesis, the material for which must be taken directly 
from the original investigations. As many of the 
investigations are in German or French, you are 
requested to state upon the enclosed card (Form 
D) whether you can read one or both of these lan- 
guages. On pages 33-37 of the pamphlet entitled 
"Physiology at Harvard" you will find a list of sub- 
jects for theses which will be discussed by the class 
in 1902, and a second list of subjects for theses to be 
written but not discussed during the present year. 
Your record during your first term in the Medical 
School assigns you to the j ^ nd j list. Five weeks 
before your thesis is due, you will receive an 
envelope bearing the subject of the thesis and 
containing a reference card. Upon one side of the 
card is a list of the investigations on the subject of 
the thesis ; upon the other, a list of the chief phys- 
iological journals and the names of the Boston and 
Cambridge libraries which contain them. Further 
information may be had from the " List of peri- 
odicals, etc., in the principal libraries of Boston 
and vicinity," published by the Trustees of the 



THE FIRST-YEAR COURSE 31 

Boston Public Library. Your receipt for the refer- 
ence card will be taken (Form E). The card must 
be returned when the thesis is handed in. Your 
assistance in the correction of errors and omissions 
in the references will be much appreciated. 

The thesis should not exceed two thousand 
words. It should be written with ink in a Physio- 
logical Thesis Book. Every statement not the 
writer's own must be accompanied by a reference 
to the original source, giving author's name, name 
of journal or title of book, year of publication, 
number of volume, and the page upon which the 
statement appears. The thesis should begin with 
a brief outline of the problem and the way in 
which investigators have attacked it, and should 
end with a summary of the results attained. 

Students whose rank entitles them to read theses 
will also be required to acquaint themselves with 
one investigation upon each of three other subjects 
in the list to be discussed by the class. The refer- 
ences for these will be found upon Form E, in the 
envelope containing the references for the thesis. 
Each thesis subject, therefore, will be studied in 
full by the author of the thesis and in part by 
three disputants. When the thesis is read, the 
three students who have each prepared one investi- 
gation upon that subject will open the discussion. 
Very truly yours, 

W. T. PORTER. 

Form D. 

HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL, 
BOSTON... 



DEAR SIR : 

I { J|| not } read French and German. My prefer- 
ence of subjects for a thesis is as follows : 



32 PHYSIOLOGY AT HARVARD 

1 

2 

3 

Very truly yours, 

Form E. 

HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL, 

DEPARTMENT OF PHYSIOLOGY, 

BOSTON, February 3, 1902. 

I have received this day the references for the 
thesis on 

This thesis, together with the reference card, is 
to be delivered to Professor W. T. Porter not later 
than 

I have also been assigned the following inves- 
tigations to be prepared for discussion upon the 
designated days. 

DATE. SUBJECT. 

(Signed).... 



This receipt is issued in duplicate. The student will retain 
one copy. 



THE FIRST-YEAR COURSE 33 

THESES TO BE DISCUSSED ix 1902 

March 18. The functions of the cell nucleus. 

" 19. Phagocytosis. 

" 20. Influence of light on protoplasm. 

21. Chemotaxis. 

" 22. Bacteria in health. 

" 25. Nature of the nerve impulse. 

" 26. Nature of muscular contractility. 

27. Ciliated epithelium. 

" 28. Nerve cells in rest and activity. 

29. Trophic nerves. 

April 1. Cross-suturing of nerves. 

2. Sensory areas in the cortex of the 

brain. 

3. Aphasia. 

4. Eeflexes from sympathetic ganglia. 

5. Nerve-cell connections of the splanch- 

nic nerves. 
" 8. Cerebral activity and circulation. 

9. The neuron theory. 
10. Accommodation of the eye. 
" 11. Color blindness. 
" 12. Function of the semicircular canals. 
" 22. Functions of the epiglottis. 

23. Vowel sounds. 
" 24. Muscle leverage. 
" 25. Deglutition. 
" 26. Movements 'of the stomach. 
" 29. Autodigestion of the stomach. 
" 30. Digestion of enemata. 
May 1. (1) Absorption of fat. 

(2) Absorption from the peritoneal 
cavity. 



34 PHYSIOLOGY AT HARVARD 

May 2. (1) Origin of lymph. 

(2) (Edema. 

3. (1) Origin and fate of the red cor- 
puscles. 

(2) Haemorrhage and the regenera- 
tion of the blood. 
" 6. Transfusion of blood. 
" 7. (1) Fibrin ferment. 

(2) Physiological effects of high 
altitudes. 

8. Gland cells in rest and activity. 

9. Secretion of foreign substances in 

milk. 

" 10. Excretion of urea. 

" 13. Internal secretion of the pancreas. 

" 14. Vicarious function. 

" 15. Alcohol as food and stimulant. 

" 16. Eespiratory exchange in the lungs. 

" 17. Cause of the heart-beat. 

" 20. (1) Negative pressure in the ven- 
tricles. 

(2) The effects of closure of the 
coronary arteries. 

" 21. Origin of glycogen. 

" 22. Origin of urea. 

23. (1) Heat regulation. 
(2) Fever. 

24. Hibernation. 

" 27. (1) Depressor nerve. 

(2) Vascular conditions during sleep. 
" 28. (1) Vasomotor nerves of the lungs. 

(2) Massage. 
" 29. Artificial parthenogenesis. 



THE FIRST-YEAR COURSE 35 

THESES TO BE WRITTEN BUT NOT DISCUSSED 
IN 1902 

Nature of voluntary muscle contraction. 

Muscle twitch and tetanus. 

Muscle tonicity. 

Smooth muscle. 

Muscle work. 

Influence of heat on muscle. 

Muscle fatigue. 

Heat production in nerves. 

Rate of nerve impulse. 

Chemical stimulation of nerve. 

Nerve degeneration and regeneration. 

Neuromuscular spindles. 

Efferent nerve fibres in posterior roots. 

Localization of neurons. 

Functions of the bile. 

Cause of death by electric currents. 

Knee jerk. 

Inhibition. 

Absorption of proteids. 

Skin absorption. 

Influence of nerves on intestinal absorption. 

Phenomena of agglutination. 

Estimation of haemoglobin in blood. 

Specific gravity of blood. 

Secretion of foreign substances in milk. 

Relation of diuresis to the circulation in the 
kidney. 

Relations between the functions of the spleen 
and the pancreas. 

Internal secretion of the thyroid gland. 

Heat production in glands. 

Mode of action of diuretics. 



36 PHYSIOLOGY AT HARVARD 

Water excretion by the skin. 

Internal secretion of the kidney. 

Secretion of bile. 

Diuretic action of sodium chloride, 

Innervation of salivary glands. 

Physiological albuminuria. 

Function of the supra-renal capsules. 

Tea and coffee. 

Male and female respiratory movements. 

Cause of the first respiration. 

Carbon dioxide excretion by skin. 

The relation between high temperature and 
rapid respiration. 

Cause of death after vagus section. 

Poisoning by carbon monoxide. 

Effects of compression of one lung on respira- 
tory exchange. 

Seat of respiration in the body. 

First heart sound. 

Kelation between the heart-beat and the con- 
stituents of the blood. 

Coordination of the heart-beat 

The action of the auriculo-ventricular valves. 

Venous pulse. 

Fibrillary contractions of heart. 

Intra-auricular pressure.. 

Semilunar valves. 

Pulse curve. 

Voluntary control of heart. 

Active diastole of heart. 

Physiology of the embryonic heart. 

Influence of gravity on the circulation. 

Action of the vagus nerve on heart. 

Vasodilator nerves. 



THE FIRST-YEAR COURSE 37 

Vasomotor nerves of the brain. 
Accelerator nerve of heart. 
Vasomotor nerves of intestine. 
Cerebral circulation and intra-cranial pressure. 
Vasomotor nerves of muscle. 
Venomotor nerves. 
Income and outgo of iron. 
Coloring matters of the body. 
Eelation between the activity of muscle and 
its metabolism. 
Phosphorescence. 
Origin of uric acid. 
Origin of the oxalic acid of the urine. 
Metabolism in nerve cells. 
The effect of varnishing the skin. 
Compressed air. 

The effect of increase in the oxygen tension. 
Effect of meals on nitrogen content of urine. 
Nitrogen equilibrium. 
Syntheses in animal body. 
Relation of urea excretion to muscle work. 
Mechanism and innervation of the spleen. 
Nitrogen excretion by the skin. 
Nature of sugar in blood. 
Eegeneration of organs. 
Relation between foetal pulse and sex. 

LECTURES 

The accessory data not already provided in the 
laboratory work upon muscle and nerve, the cir- 
culation, and physiological optics will be given 
in the conferences held during the experiments 
upon those subjects. The distribution of the re- 
maining didactic exercises is shown in the accom- 
panying calendar. 



38 



PHYSIOLOGY AT HARVARD 
CALENDAR 



DATE. 
1902. 


SYSTEMATIC 
LECTURES. 


LABORATORY 
EXPERIMENTS. 


DATE. 

1902. 


Feb. 8- 
Mar. 14 


Muscle and nerve. 


Muscle and nerve. 


Feb. 8- 
Mar. 14 


" 17 


Spinal cord and brain. 


Spinal cord and brain. 


" 17 


" 18 


" t( 


ti tt 


" 18 


" 19 


* 


tl <t 


" 19 


" 20 


M 


ft ft 


" 20 


" 21 





ft tt 


" 21 


" 24 


tt 


tt tt 


" 24 


" 25 


tt 


tf tt 


" 25 


" 26 


" 


Cutaneous sensations. 


" 26 


" 27 


'* 


* tt 


" 27 


" 28 


" 


Taste, smell, hearing. 


" 28 


" 31 


' 


tt tt i 


" 31 


Apr. 1 

" 2 
" 3 


Sympathetic. 
Cutaneous sensations. 
Taste and smell. 


Physiological optics. 


Apr. 1 
* 2 
" 3 


" 4 


Hearing. 


<> 


!! 4 


., 7 

tt 


" 


" " 




O 

" 9 


Vision. 


Vision. 


" 8 
" 9 


" 10 


M 




" 10 


" 11 


M 


*< 


" 11 


Recess 






Recess 


Apr. 21 
* 22 


Vision. 
Voice. 


Vision. 
Digestion, absorption, 
lymph, blood, se- 


Apr. 21 
' 22 






cretion, respira- 








tion, metabolism. 




" 23 


Speech. 




" 23 


" 24 
" 25 


Locomotion. 
Digestion and absorption. 


n n 


" 24 
" 25 


" 28 


tt it 


U tt 


" 28 


" 29 


U tt 


tt tt 


" 29 


" 30 


ft tt 


ft tt 


" 30 


May 1 
2 


Lymph and blood. 


" " 


May 1 


" 5 


*i * 


tt tt 


" 5 


" 6 


Secretion. 


tt tt 


" 6 


" 7 




Circulation. 


'.' 7 


" 8 


** 


<* 


" 8 


" 9 


* 


tt 


" 9 


" 12 


tt 


tt 


" 12 


" 13 


Nutrition, diet. 


tt 


" 13 


" 14 


tt tt 


tt 


" 14 


" 15 


Respiration. 





" 15 


" 16 


** 





" 16 


" 19 





t 


" 19 


" 20 


[heat. 


t 


" 20 


" 21 


MetaboHsm and animal 


< 


21 


" 22 




t 


22 


" 23 


tt tt 





' 23 


" 26 


tt tt 


t 


' 26 


" 27 

" 28 


Reproduction. 


" 


| 27 


" 29 


tt 


tt 


' 29 


" 30 
June 2 


Holiday. 


Holiday. 
Practical examination. 


' 30 
June 2 


" 3 






" 3 


" 4 




tt tt 


** 4 


" 5 




tt n 


" 5 


" 6 






" 6 



THE FIRST-YEAR COURSE 39 

The calendar shows that the lectures are de- 
livered after the subject of the lecture has been 
studied in the laboratory. The lectures accord- 
ingly are not elementary. The elements the 
student has already learned from his own ex- 
periments and their accessory data. It is the 
function of the lecturer' to discuss the student's 
observations and to collate them with the work 
of other observers. The lectures are held at 
nine o'clock, the hour most favorable for this 
purpose. They are of thirty minutes' duration. 
Experience shows that a carefully planned lec- 
ture of thirty minutes may be as effective as one 
of forty-five or sixty minutes. 

OPTIONAL LECTURES- 

During the afternoons of May optional lectures 
are given. The majority of these are discussions 
of original investigations which the lecturer him- 
self has made. Of thirty seven optional lectures 
given in 19001901, twenty-seven were of this 
nature. The list for 1902 is as follows: 

AT 3 P.M. 
May 1 Prof. Bowditch. Growth. 

O tc 

"5 " "' Locomotion. 



Physiology of the 

larynx. 

Physiology of the 

larynx. 



40 



PHYSIOLOGY AT HARVARD 



May 12 

" 13 
" 14 
" 15 
" 16 
" 19 



" 20 

" 21 

" 22 

" 23 



Prof. Bowditch. Physiology of vision. 



Dr. Cannon. 



Dr. Lillie. 



" 26 Dr. Opitz. 



Movement of the food 
in the oesophagus 
and stomach. 

Movement of the food 
in the intestines. 

Directive influence of 
light on organisms. 

Cerebral pressure. 

Influence of salt solu- 
tions upon certain 
forms of vital activ- 
ity, especially cili- 
ary and muscular 
movements. 

The viscosity of the 
blood. 



AT 2 P.M. 



May 15 Prof. Porter. 
16 " " 



" 19 

" 20 
" 21 



Path of respiratory 
impulse. 

Relation of physical 
development to suc- 
cess in public school 
life. 

Resultof closureof the 
coronary arteries. 

Filling of the heart. 

New method for study 
of intracardiac pres- 
sure. 



THE FIRST- YEAR COURSE 41 

May 22 Prof. Porter. Cause of the heart- 

beat. 

" 23 " " Influence of the heart- 

beat on the flow of 
blood through the 
walls of the heart. 

" 26 " " The pulse. 

SPECIAL EXPERIMENTAL WORK 

During the last two weeks of the course stu- 
dents who have performed the regular laboratory 
work with distinction may elect to perform special 
experimental work. Each student is provided 
with a sufficiently circumscribed subject, the ori- 
ginal sources, a method, and the necessary appa- 
ratus. With this careful preparation, many of 
the fundamental discoveries in the subject chosen 
may be repeated and the general plan of work 
pursued by all students of biological science 
acquired. 

EXAMINATIONS 

In order to receive the degree of Doctor of 
Medicine the student must have demonstrated 
to the Department of Physiology that his train- 
ing in this subject is satisfactory. The character 
of the- student's work during the four months of 
his instruction counts materially toward his final 
grade. At the end of the term two formal ex- 
aminations are held, one of which is practical, 
while the second is written. Candidates failing 
in the June examination may be re-examined in 
September. The practical examination, as is 



42 PHYSIOLOGY AT HAKVARD 

natural in an experimental science, grows in 
importance each year. In June, 1901, the stu- 
dent was required to perform four out of six 
experiments assigned him by lot. He was ex- 
amined during two half-days, receiving each day 
three experiments, from which he must choose 
two. The character of this test will be under- 
stood from the following instructions to students 
and the list of experiments assigned in the last 
examination. 

DEPARTMENT OF PHYSIOLOGY, PRACTICAL 
EXAMINATION, JUNE 3, 4, 5, 6, 1901 

NOTICE 

Each student will perform four of the six ex- 
periments bearing his number. In each case he 
will write on one of the blank forms furnished 
herewith the problem selected and an account of 
his resultB. Necessary apparatus not already in 
the locker may be obtained by presenting a signed 
requisition. Where the results of the experiment 
are not expressed in a graphic record, they must 
be demonstrated to one of the instructors, who will 
then countersign the student's account of the ex- 
periment. Graphic records must be marked plainly 
with the student's name, placed in a shellacking- 
frame, and, at the close of the student's work, 
handed to one of the Staff, together with all three 
of the problems suggested. No student may leave 
his desk until his examination is finished. 



THE FIRST-YEAR COURSE 43 



PRACTICAL EXAMINATION IN PHYSIOLOGY 

QEach student is required to make four of the six experi- 
ments bearing his number, and to write an account of his 
observations on the blank furnished herewith. Where the 
results of the experiments are not expressed in a graphic 
record they must be demonstrated to the instructor.] 

1. Demonstrate polar stimulation by the galvanic 
current. Show the vasomotor functions of the spi- 
nal cord. Demonstrate the inhibition of reflex 
action in the frog. Furnish experimental evidence 
for an explanation of the auriculo-ventricular in- 
terval. Prove that the galvanic current stimulates 
during the whole time of its passage through an 
irritable tissue. Demonstrate the influence of load 
on ventricular contraction. 

2. Show by diagram the method of determin- 
ing the size of a retinal image. Demonstrate that 
the nervous impulse must pass to the central ner- 
vous system before it can produce a reflex action. 
Demonstrate the difference in the physiology of 
smooth and striated muscles. Prove the existence 
of tonic contraction of muscle. Demonstrate the 
current of action in muscle or nerve. Give experi- 
mental evidence that the vagus connects with the 
nerve cells in the heart. 

3. Show the function of the anterior spinal nerve- 
roots. Record with the artificial scheme pulse 
curves of low arterial tension and high arterial 
tension, and discuss their method of production. 
Construct a diagram showing the formation of the 
image in myopia. Prove that the extensibility of 
muscle is increased in tetanus. Demonstrate the 
limits of the refractory period and the existence 
of the compensatory pause. Prove that the demar- 
cation current (current of injury) may act as a 
stimulus. 



44 PHYSIOLOGY AT HARVARD 

4. Show the effect of inhibition of the heart on 
arterial pressure in the frog. Demonstrate on 
muscle the different effect of sudden and of gradual 
increase in intensity of stimulus. Prove the dis- 
continuous nature of tetanic contraction. Show 
the influence of temperature on the form of the 
contraction wave of skeletal muscle. Produce 
evidence that irritability is separable from conduc- 
tivity. Show that the control of movements is 
localized at different levels of the spinal cord. 

5. Determine the effect of stimulation of the 
vagus on the beat of the ventricle. Show that all 
contractions of heart muscle are maximal. Give 
experimental evidence that a nerve fibre may con- 
duct impulses in both directions. Show that a 
constant stimulus may cause periodic contraction. 
Show the influence of fatigue on muscular contrac- 
tion. Draw a construction showing the formation 
of the image in the indirect method of observing 
the retina. 

6. Show the action of the sympathetic on the 
heart. Demonstrate the spreading of impulses in 
the central nervous system. Record curves show- 
ing the influence of changes in the aortic pressure 
on the interval between the beginning of ventricu- 
lar contraction and the opening of the semilunar 
valves (in the artificial scheme). Show the seg- 
mental arrangement of the reflex apparatus. Con- 
struct a diagram showing the formation of the 
image in hypermetropia. Show the influence of 
an increase in peripheral resistance on the blood 
pressure in the frog. 

7. Demonstrate that the cardiac systole is a 
simple contraction. Show the influence of load 
on the work done by skeletal muscle. Show where 
the more complicated coordinated reflex acts have 
their centres. Prove the independent irritability 



THE FIRST-YEAR COURSE 45 

of muscle. Show experimental proof of the law 
of contraction with weak, medium, and strong 
ascending currents. Make a record of minimal 
and maximal stimulation and show the effect of 
summation. 

8. Show evidence that the ventricular contrac- 
tion wave may be transmitted by muscular tissue. 
Prove that the excitability of a nerve is altered in 
the neighborhood of the anode and the cathode 
during the passage of the galvanic current. Se- 
cure a record of the effect of duration of stimulus 
on smooth muscle. Compare an isometric contrac- 
tion with an isotonic contraction. Obtain from the 
artificial scheme of the circulation a characteristic 
pulse curve of aortic regurgitation and explain its 
production. Demonstrate and discuss the apparent 
purpose in reflex action. 

The character of the written examination will 
be evident upon reading the following papers : 

SEPTEMBER, 1900 
[^Answer any four questions, but not more than four.^ 

1. Describe the coagulation of either blood or 
milk, stating both the physical and chemical 
phenomena. 

2. Describe and draw an artificial scheme upon 
which the physical phenomena of the circulation 
of the -blood can be demonstrated. 

3. Give experimental evidence to show how the 
tetanic contraction of muscle is produced. 

4. Describe fully the interchange between the 
air in the alveoli and the gases in the blood. 

5. Give the complete course of any one of the 
ascending or descending tracts in the central 
nervous system. 



46 PHYSIOLOGY AT HARVARD 

6. Give experiments establishing the importance 
of any one of the internal secretions. 

JUNE, 1901 

[[Answer any four questions, but not more than four. The 
answer to any one question should not exceed three hundred 



1. Draw curves showing the changes of pressure 
in the auricle, ventricle, and aorta from the begin- 
ning of one auricular contraction to the beginning 
of the next. Add brief explanatory notes. 

2. Give an account of the physiology of smooth 
muscle. 

3. Discuss the chemistry of respiration. 

4. Draw the motor area of the cortex and give 
evidence in support of the theory of cortical 
localization. 

5. Write a sketch of the physiology of absorption. 

SEPTEMBER, 1901 

[^Answer any three questions, but not more than three. The 
answer to any one question must not exceed three hundred 
words. Mention, where possible, experimental evidence in 
support of your opinion. Matter not bearing directly on the 
question asked will count against the writer.]] 

1. Give an account of the physiology of fer- 
ments. 

2. Describe the principal conducting paths in the 
spinal cord. 

3. Give a general description of the vasomotor 
nervous system. 

4. State experiments in support of a theory of 
accommodation in the eye. 



THE ADVANCED COURSE 47 



III 
THE ADVANCED COURSE 

STUDENTS in the fourth year of the Medical 
School may elect advanced instruction, at present 
consisting of one hundred and sixty hours of 
laboratory study, in any field of physiology. It 
is to be presumed that such students desire ad- 
ditional work in physiology to fit them for 
some special field of medicine, for example the 
diseases of the nervous system ; or they may wish 
to pursue physiology, pathology, or some other 
biological science as a profession. They will be 
received into the research laboratories of the 
department, and will carry on their studies side 
by side with the members of the Staff. The 
work will consist of fundamental experiments, 
the study of accessory data, and the reading of 
selected original investigations. The student 
will be guided by personal conferences with the 
professor in charge, and, if desirable, by informal 
lectures. He may also attend the optional lec- 
tures given in May (see page 39), in which each 
member of the Staff discusses the subjects which 
he has himself investigated. 

This course counts toward the degree of Doctor 
of Medicine, and an examination, largely practical, 
will be required. 



48 PHYSIOLOGY AT HARVARD 



IV 
PHYSIOLOGICAL RESEARCH 

THE laboratories are open at all times to stu- 
dents qualified to undertake research. The fol- 
lowing investigations have been published during 
the past six years : 

1896 

PORTER, W. T. : The vasomotor nerves of the 
heart. Boston medical and surgical journal, 
1896, cxxxiv, pp. 39, 40. 

PORTER. W. T. : Weiteres tiber den Verschluss 
der Coronararterien ohne mechanische Verlet- 
zung. Centralblatt fur Physiologic, 1896, ix, 
pp. 641-647. 

PORTER, W. T. : The use of anthropometrical meas- 
urements in schools. Educational review, 
1896, pp. 126-133. 

PORTER, W. T. : Further researches on the closure 
of the coronary arteries. Journal of experi- 
mental medicine, 1896, i, pp. 4670. 

PORTER, W. T. : A new method for the study of 
the intracardiac pressure curve. Journal of 
experimental medicine, 1896, i, pp. 296-303. 

1897 

MAGRATH, J. B., and H. KENNEDY : On the relation 
of the volume of the coronary circulation to 
the frequency and force of the venticular con- 



PHYSIOLOGICAL RESEARCH 49 

traction in the isolated heart of the cat. Jour- 
nal of experimental medicine, 1897, ii, pp. 13- 
34. 

PORTER, W. T. : 1. On the cause of the heart-beat. 
2. The recovery of the heart from fibrillary 
contractions. 3. Note on the relation between 
the beat of the ventricle and the flow of blood 
through the coronary arteries. Journal of the 
Boston Society of the Medical Sciences, 1897, 
i, pp. 15-21. 

PORTER, W. T. : On the cause of the heart-beat. 
Journal of experimental medicine, 1897, ii, 
pp. 391-404. 

1898 

PORTER, W. T. : The recovery of the heart from 
fibrillary contractions. American journal of 
physiology, 1898, i, pp. 71-82. 

PRATT, F. H. : The nutrition of the heart through 
the vessels of Thebesius and the coronary veins. 
American journal of physiology, 1898, i, pp. 
86-103. 

PORTER, W. T. : The influence of the heart-beat on 
the flow of blood through the walls of the heart. 
American journal of physiology, 1898, i, pp. 
145-163. 

HYDE, I. H. : The effect of distention of the ven- 
tricle on the flow of blood through the walls of 
the heart. American journal of physiology, 
1898, i, pp. 215-224. 

CLEGHORN, A. : The reinforcement of voluntary 
muscular contractions. American journal of 
physiology, 1898, i, pp. 336-345. 

CANNON, W. B.: The movements of the stomach 
studied by means of the Rontgen rays. Amer- 
ican journal of physiology, 1898, i, pp. 359- 
382. * 



50 PHYSIOLOGY AT HARVARD 

CANNON, W. B., and A. MOSER: The movements of 
the food in the oesophagus. American journal 
of physiology, 1898, i, pp. 435-444. 

BANCROFT, F. W. : The venomotor nerves of the 
hind limb. American journal of physiology, 
1898, i, pp. 477-485. 

MUSKENS, L. J. J. : An analysis of the action of 
the vagus nerve on the heart. American 
journal of physiology, 1898, i, pp. 486-510. 

PORTER, W. T. : A new method for the study of 
the isolated mammalian heart. American 
journal of physiology, 1898, i, pp. 511-518. 

1899 

PORTER , W. T. : The coordination of the ventri- 
cles. American journal of physiology, 1899, 
ii, pp. 127-136. 

STEWART, C. C. : On the course of impulses to and 
from the cat's bladder. American journal of 
physiology, 1899, ii, pp. 182-202. 

BAUMGARTEN, W. : Infarction in the heart. Ameri- 
can journal of physiology, 1899, ii, pp. 243-265. 

CLEGHORN, A. : The action of animal extracts, bac- 
terial cultures, and culture filtrates on the 
mammalian heart muscle. American journal 
of physiology, 1899, ii, pp. 273-290. 

CLEGHORN, A. : The physiological action of ex- 
tracts of the sympathetic ganglia. American 
journal of physiology, 1899, ii, pp. 471-482. 

WOODWORTH, R. S. : Studies in the contraction of 
smooth muscle. American journal of physiol- 
ogy, 1899, iii, pp. 26-44. 

MATHEWS, A. P. : The origin of fibrinogen. Ameri- 
can journal of physiology, 1899, iii, pp. 53-85. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL RESEARCH 51 



1900 

DEARBORX, G-. V. N. : Notes on the individual 

psycho-physiology of the crayfish. American 

journal of physiology, 1900, iii, pp. 404-433. 
PORTER, W. T., and H. G-. BEYER : The relation of 

the depressor nerve to the vasomotor centre. 

American journal of physiology, 1900, iv, pp. 

283-299. 
PORTER, W. T., and W. MUHLBERG: Experiments 

concerning the prolonged inhibition said to 

follow injury of the spinal cord. American 

journal of physiology, 1900, iv, pp. 334-342. 
FRANZ, S. I. : On the methods of estimating the 

force of voluntary contractions and on fatigue. 

American journal of physiology, 1900, iv, pp. 

348-372. 
CLEGHORX, A. : The physiological effects and the 

nature of extracts of sympathetic ganglia. 

Journal of the Boston Society of the Medical 

Sciences, 1900, iv, pp. 239-242. 

1901 

MATHEWS, A. P.: The spontaneous secretion of 

saliva and the action of atropine. American 

journal of physiology, 1901, iv, pp. 482-499. 
McCuRDY, J. H. : The effect of maximum muscular 

effort on blood-pressure. American journal of 

physiology, 1901, v, pp. 95-103. 
CLEGHORX, A.) and C. C. STEWART : The inhibition 

time of a voluntary muscular contraction. 

American journal of physiology, 1901, v, pp. 

281-286. 
CAXXOX, W. B. : Cerebral pressure following 

trauma. American journal of physiology, 

1901, vi, pp. 91-121. 



52 PHYSIOLOGY AT HARVARD 



V 

THE SUMMER COURSE 

THE summer course in physiology will be given 
daily during the five weeks from June 30 to 
August 2, 1902, inclusive. This course will lie 
found to be valuable to instructors of schools 
and colleges who seek experience in the teaching 
of physiology by laboratory methods. Students 
who wish to prepare themselves for the courses 
in the Medical School, or who may desire to re- 
cover ground lost by illness or other misfortune, 
will also find an opportunity here. The instruc- 
tion will consist of fundamental experiments per- 
formed by the students themselves, and the study 
of accessory data. An informal lecture or con- 
ference will be given daily. 

The fee for these thirty days of laboratory 
instruction, including the necessary material, 
will be forty dollars. 



APPENDIX 53 



APPENDIX 



APPARATUS 

The following articles are required for the ex- 
periments upon muscle and nerve, the circulation, 
spinal cord and brain, physiological optics, and 
cutaneous sensations (pages 1324). Additional 
lists for the subjects in preparation will be issued 
when the experiments are ready. 

Adjustable plate, or nerve holder. 1 

Artificial scheme, see circulation scheme. 

Balancing board, see board, balancing. 

*Band, rubber, diameter 9 cm., for the head. 

Beakers, 3, 7 X 6 cm. 

Block, 8.6 X 8.6 X 1.6 cm., for +10 D lens, in arti- 
ficial eye box. 

-, 8.6 X 8.6 X 1.6cm., for cylindrical +7 D lens, 

in artificial eye box. 

-, 8.6 X 8.6 X 1.6 cm., for mirror, in artificial 

eye box. 
-, 8.6 X 8.6 X 1.6 cm., for retina, in artificial 



eye box. 

Board, balancing, 38.5 X 20.5 X 4.5 cm. 
, mesentery, with 6 fine pins. 

1 Articles marked * will be placed in the small wooden boxes. 



54 PHYSIOLOGY AT HARVARD 

Book, for laboratory notes, 21 x 17.5 cm., 180 pages. 

, for thesis, 21 X 17.2 cm., 32 pages. 
Bottle, glass stopper, 9 X 3.7 cm., 45 c.c. cnrare; 

2 drops should paralyze a frog in about 10 

minutes. 

, 5x3 cm., 20 c.c., with 100 grams of mercury. 

, glass stopper, 13 X 5.3 cm., 135 c.c. normal 

saline. 
, glass stopper, 13 X 5.3 cm., 135 c.c. saturated 

solution zinc sulphate. 
-, square, 7.5 x 4.3 X 4.3 cm., filled with 68 c.c. 



of 75 per cent glycerine tinged with eosin ; cork 

flush with neck ; in artificial box. 
Bottles, 3, glass stoppers, 10 X 4.2 cm., 70 c.c., for 

solutions. 

Bowl, earthenware, 18 X 5.5 cm., 1200 c.c. 
Box, black, to cover retina. 

, 43.5 X 20.4 x 24 cm., to mount electrometer. 

Boxes, 2, wooden, 12 x 8.7 X 5 cm. 

* Brush, camePs-hair, for handling nerves. 

Burner, Bunsen, with 150 cm. rubber tubing. 

, fish-tail, with perfect tip. 

*Candlewick, 10 cm. long. 

*Cannula, metal, for aorta, with 10 cm. rubber 

tube, and 3.5 cm. glass rod to fit tube. 
Carbon dioxide generator, with wash bottle, marble, 

20 per cent HC1 in beaker, and connecting tubes. 
Card, with no. 20 copper wire. 
Cell, Daniell, amalgamated zinc, copper, porous cup, 

saturated solution copper sulphate, 5 per cent 

sulphuric acid. 
Cells, 2 dry. 
*Cement, colophonium 1 part, beeswax 4 parts, 

piece 2 X 2 X 2.5 cm. 
Circulation scheme. 
Clamp, curved iron. 
, 4 double iron. 



APPENDIX 55 

Clamp, femur, or muscle clamp. 

Clay, potter's kaolin in dish, 5.5 X 3.7 cm., moist- 
ened with 0.6 per cent NaCl solution. 

Cloth, cotton, 30x40 cm. 

*Collar button. 

*Compressor, or cork clamp, or Gaskell clamp. 

Cork, diameter 2 cm. 

Cotton ; fill beaker loosely. 

Cylinder, cardboard, 20.5 X 5.5 cm., for kymograph 
paper. 

, cardboard box, 26 X 4 cm., for straws. 

, tin, cork plug, incense, in artificial eye box. 

Diaphragm, 0.2 mm. aperture, in artificial eye box. 

, L aperture, in artificial eye box. 

, vertical and horizontal slit, in artificial eye 

box. 

Dish, evaporating, diameter 8 cm. 

, paper, diameter 16 cm., for rocking key. 

Dissecting case, with scissors, one large and one 
small forceps, and a seeker. 

^Electrodes, brass, 1 flat, and 1 wire. 

, for inductorium. 

* , needle, 2 pair, each pair passed through a 

cork, diameter 1 cm. 
-, 4 unpolarizable boots, with 4 spring clips, 4 



zincs, and 4 no. 27 wires, 10 cm. long, in moist 
chamber. 

, 2 platinum, 5 X 0.5 cm. 
1 zinc, 7 by 0.5 cm. 



Electromagnetic signal, see signal magnet. 
Electrometer, capillary, 20 per cent sulphuric acid, 

with box, and curved iron clamp. 
Ergograph, iron stand with spring, with adjustable 

rod, hand rest, and curved iron clamp. 
Eye, artificial, see optical box. 

, artificial ophthalmoscopic, in artificial eye box. 

Frog, sciatic nerve cut 4 days before use. 



56 PHYSIOLOGY AT HARVARD 

Frogs, medium size, average number for each stu- 
dent, 45. 

, large, average number for each student, 4. 

Frog board, 4 clips. 

Frog-heart manometer, see manometer, small mer- 
cury. 

Funnel ring. 

Galvanometer. 

*Gas chamber, cork with 2 tubes and 2 electrodes, 
normal saline clay. 

*Handles, 4 wooden, for pressure-hairs. 

Heart-holder, wooden stand. 

*Hooks, 2, S-shaped, one end sharp. 
, 2 double. 

Ice. 

Incense, 4 pieces, 3 cm. long, in artificial eye box. 

Inductoriuin. 

Ink, black and red. 

Interrupter wheel. 

*Iron filings, 2 grams. 

Jar, glass, battery, 20 X 17 cm., to hold frog. 

Key, rocking, with paper dish. 

, simple. 

Kymograph. 

Lantern, 2 draw tubes. 

Lens, convex, +2 D, in small envelope, in artificial 
eye box. 

, convex, +10 D, in wooden block, in artificial 

eye box. 
-, concave, 2 D, in small envelope, in artifi- 



cial eye box. 

, cylindrical, +2 D, in small envelope, in arti- 
ficial eye box. 

, cylindrical, -f-7 D, in wooden block, in artifi- 
cial eye box. 

Lever, light muscle, with small scale pan and ver- 
tical pin. 



APPENDIX 57 

Lever, heavy muscle, with large scale pan. 

Ligature, thread, 100-yard spool. 

*Magnet, bar. 

Manometer, small mercury, with glass float and 

rubber tube. 

Marble, for carbon dioxide generator. 
Membrane, finest rubber, diameter 2 cm., for sphyg- 

mograph tambour. 
* , rubber dam, diameter 5 cm., for sphygmo- 

graph thistle tube. 

* Menthol pencil. 

Mercury cup, for vibrating reed. 

Mesentery board, see board, mesentery. 

Metronome, one in each room. 

*Micrometer ocular. 

Microscope, with jointed stand for horizonal ad- 
justment. 

*Millimetre paper, strip 15 X 1.5 cm. 

Mirror, concavo-convex, in wooden block, in artifi- 
cial eye box. 
, plane, glass, 5x5 cm., in artificial eye box. 

Moist chamber, with 4 unpolarizable boots, 4 clips, 
1 femur clamp, and glass shade. 

Mounting rod, for boot electrodes. 

Muscle clamp, see clamp, femur. 

lever, heavy, see lever, heavy muscle. 

lever, light, see lever, light muscle. 

warmer, with thermometer, lead shot, and ice. 
Nerve holder, see adjustable plate. 
Optical box, see also 

block, holding +10 D lens. 

, holding cylindrical +7 D lens. 

, holding concavo-convex mirror. 

, holding retina. 

bottle, square, filled with 75 per cent glycerine 
tinged with eosin ; cork flush with neck. 

cover, plate glass. 



58 PHYSIOLOGY AT HARVARD 

Optical box (continued) 

cylinder, tin, with cork plug. 

diaphragm, 0.2 mm. aperture. 

, L aperture. 

, vertical and horizontal slit. 

incense, 4 pieces 3 cm. long. 

mirror, plane, silvered glass. 

ophthalmoscopic eye. 

screen, 1 cm. diameter. 

slide, glass, to cover window. 

, ground glass. 

*Paper, black, 1 X 1 cm., stroboscopic method. 

, coordinate, 10 X 10 cm. 

, filter, 1 sheet, 50 X 50 cm. 

* , filter, 5x5 cm., soaked in starch paste 

with potassium iodide. 

glazed on one side, in cardboard case, 25 



sheets, 54.8 X 18.5 cm., gummed 0.8 cm. at one 

end. 

, paraffin, 10 x 7 cm. 

, for written tests, 24.5 x 19.5 cm., printed. 

* , for writing-points, 5x5 cm. 

Paramecia. 

*Pins, 6, for mesentery. 

Pipette, glass tube, 20 cm. long, diameter 0.6 cm., 

drawn out. 

, fine glass. 

, rubber bulb. 

Plate, glass, 12.8 x 10.3 cm. 

, glass cover, for artificial eye box. 

Plethysmograph tube, with rubber collar 4 cm. 

long, rubber tubing, and T-tube. 
Pole changer, see key, rocking. 
Rabbit, uninjured, in rabbit holder, for heart reflex. 
Reed, vibrating, 20 cm. 
Rheochord. 
*Ring, brass, 0.1 gram. 



APPENDIX 59 

*Ring, 2 straw fasteners. 

*Kod, glass, 3.5 cm., for aortic cannula tube. 

, glass, L-shaped, Exp. salts on heart-muscle. 
, stirring, 20 cm. long, end drawn out. 

, wooden, 8.5 X 0.6 cm. 

Scale pan, large. 

pan, small. 

Shellac dissolved in 96 per cent alcohol. 

*Shot, lead, 1 gram, split. 

Signal magnet. 

*Slide, glass, 7.6 X 2.6 cm. 

, glass, 7.6 X 3.9 cm., in artificial eye box. 

, ground glass, 7.6 X 3.9 cm., in artificial eye 

box. 
Sodium chloride, crystals in salt mouth, 30 c.c., 

bottle. 
Solutions, 1 

amyl nitrite, 
acetic acid (strong), 
alcohol. 

ammonia, NH 3 . 
atropine, 0.5 per cent. 
Biedermann's fluid, 

sodium chloride, NaCl, 5 grams, 
disodium hydrogen phosphate, Na 2 HP0 4 , 

2 grams. 

sodium carbonate, Na 2 C0 3 , 0.4 gram, 
water, H 2 0, 1000 c.c. 

1 The composition of each solution is written upon as many 
tags as there are pairs of students. The writing is coated with 
shellac dissolved in alcohol. Experience has shown that not 
more than three solutions are needed at any one laboratory 
exercise. The necessary quantity of the liquids is transferred 
from large stock bottles" to three small bottles, upon which the 
corresponding tags are placed. Each tag has a metal ring 
which slips readily over the neck of the bottle. At the close of 
the exercise the tags are stored away, and the bottles carefully 
washed. 



60 PHYSIOLOGY AT HARVARD 

Solutions (continued) 

calcium chloride, CaCl 2 , 1 per cent. 

copper sulphate, CuS0 4 , saturated solution. 

distilled water, H 2 0. 

ether. 

hydrochloric acid, HC1, 20 per cent. 

muscariue (trace). 

nicotine, 0.2 per cent. 

potassium chloride, KC1, 5 per cent. 

chloride, KC1, 0.9 per cent. 

Kinger's fluid, 

calcium chloride, CaCl 2 , 0.0026 gram, 
potassium chloride, KC1, 0.035 gram, 
sodium chloride, Nad, 0.7 gram, 
water, H 2 0, to make 100 c.c. 
sodium carbonate, Na 2 C0 3 , 1 per cent. 

chloride, NaCl, saturated solution. 

chloride, NaCl, 0.6 per cent, "normal 

saline." 

- chloride, NaCl, 0.75 per cent, 
strychnine sulphate, 0.5 per cent, 
sulphuric acid, H 2 S0 4 , 5 per cent. 

acid, H 2 S0 4 , 0.2 per cent. 

veratrine acetate, 1 per cent. 

Sphygmograph tambour, with rubber tubing, T- 
tube, fine straw, finest rubber membrane, thistle 
tube, rubber dam, and collar button. 
Stand, two iron, with 4 clamps. 

, wooden. 

Straw, fine, for sphygmograph tambour. 
, large, 36 cm. long, with platinum wire sol- 
dered to thin copper wire. 
Straws, large, 20 cm. long, 3 in cardboard case. 
Tags, written and shellacked, one for each solution 
except curare, normal saline, and saturated solu- 
tion zinc sulphate. 
Thermometer, diameter not over 0.8 cm. 



APPEN 7 DIX 61 

*Thread, silk, 50 cm. 

Tin foil, see paper. 

Tortoise, average number for each student, 1. 

Towel, small. 

Tracing holders, 3. 

Tuning fork. 

Vertebral saw. 

Volume tube, 2 corks with hook electrode. 

Wash bottle, for carbon dioxide generator. 

Web board ; may use mesentery board. 

*Weights, 10 one-gram in box. 

, 100 ten -gram in large scale pan. 
Wire gauze, 10 X 10 cm. 
Wire, 300 cm., fine copper, no. 33, on spool. 
, copper, 10 cm. 

, iron, 10 cm. 

, zinc, 10 cm. 

Wires, copper, 13 no. 25, 60 cm. long, on spool. 

, copper, 2 no. 25, 150 cm. long, coiled. 

, connecting, for lantern, with plug. 
Work adder. 



Form F. 

[Requisition blank.] 

HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL, 

DEPARTMENT OF PHYSIOLOGY, 
, 190. 

The undersigned desires the following supplies: 



Room 

(Signed). 
Number.... 



62 PHYSIOLOGY AT HARVAKD 

Form G. 

[First issue of apparatus.] 

HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL, 

DEPARTMENT OF PHYSIOLOGY, 

February 8, 1902. 

The undersigned students have received this 
first issue of apparatus, for experiments upon the 
methods of electrical stimulation of muscle and 
nerve, chemical and mechanical stimulation. 1 

Adjustable plate. 
Beakers, 3. 
Bottle, with curare. 

, with 0.6 per cent NaCl. 

, with saturated ZnS0 4 . 

, with Hg. 

Boxes, 2 small wooden. 

Bowl. 

*Brush, camel's-hair. 

Burner, Buusen, and tubing. 

, fish-tail. 

Cells, 2 dry. 
*Cement, colophoniuin. 
Clamp, curved iron. 

, 4 double iron. 

, femur, see muscle clamp. 

Clay, in glass dish. 
^Compressor (Gaskell clamp). 
Cork. 

Cork clamp. 

Cylinder, cardboard, with 25 sheets kymograph 
paper. 

, cardboard box, with 3 straws. 

Dish, paper, for rocking key. 
*Electrodes, brass, one flat and one wire. 
, for inductorium. 

1 Articles marked * will be found in the small wooden boxes. 



APPENDIX 63 

^Electrodes, 4 needle, with 2 small corks. 

, 4 unpolarizable (4 boots, 4 spring clips, 4 

zincs, and 4 connecting wires, in moist chamber). 
Electromagnetic signal, see signal magnet. 
Electrometer mounted on box. 
Frog board with 4 clips. 
Funnel ring. 
*Hooks, S-shaped, 2. 

* , double, 2. 

Inductorium. 
Jar, battery. 
Key, rocking, with paper dish. 

, simple. 

Kymograph. 

Lever, light muscle, with vertical pin. 
Ligatures, thread, on spool. 
*Micrometer ocular. 
Millimetre paper. 
Moist chamber, glass cover. 
Mounting rod for unpolarizable electrodes. 
Muscle clamp. 

Nerve holder, see adjustable plate. 
Paper, coordinate. 
, filter. 

* , for writing points. 

, glazed, 25 sheets in cardboard case. 

Pipette. 

, tine glass. 

, with rubber bulb. 
Plate, glass. 

Pole-changer, see key, rocking. 
Porcelain dish. 
Rheocbord. 

*Ring, wire straw fastener, 2. 
Rod, glass. 
Scale pan, small. 
Signal magnet. 



64 PHYSIOLOGY AT HAKVARD 

*Slide, glass. 

Stands, 2 iron, and 4 clamps. 

Straws, 3 in case. 

Tracing holders, 3. 

Tuning fork. 

* Weights, 10 ten-gram. 

Wire, 300 cm. fine copper, on spool. 

, copper, 10 cm. 

, zinc, 10 cm. 

Wires, copper, 13 two-ft. each, 1 five-ft. 
Wire gauze. 

(Signed) 



Desk Koom 

Form H. 

[Second issue of apparatus.] 

HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL, 

DEPARTMENT OF PHYSIOLOGY, 

1902. 

The undersigned students have received this 
second issue of apparatus, comprising the addi- 
tional pieces necessary for experiments upon 
irritability and conductivity, electromotive phe- 
nomena of muscle and nerve, and change in form. 

Candlewick. 

Carbon dioxide generator, with marble, wash 

bottle, and connecting tubes. 
Cotton. 

Ergograph, with adjustable rod, and hand rest. 
Gas chamber, cork with 2 tubes and 2 electrodes. 
Heart holder. 
Interrupter wheel. 

Lever, heavy muscle (rigid muscle lever). 
Muscle warmer. 



APPENDIX 65 

Rubber band. 

Scale pan, large, with 90 ten-gram weights. 

Shot, lead, split. 

Wash bottle, for carbon dioxide generator. 

Weights, 10 one-gram. 

, 100 ten-gram, in scale pan. 

Work adder. 

(Signed) 



Desk Room 

Form I. 

HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL, 

DEPARTMENT OF PHYSIOLOGY, 

March 13, 1902. 

The following apparatus has been returned by 

students and 

Room Desk 

[First return list.] 

Adjustable plate. 

Bottle, with saturated ZnSO. 

Can die wick. 

Carbon dioxide generator, with marble, wash bot- 
tle, and connecting tubes. 

Cork clamp. 

Dish with clay (kaolin). 

Electrodes, 4 needle, with 2 small corks. 

, 4 unpolarizable (4 boots, 4 spring clips, 4 

zincs, and 4 connecting wires). 

Electrometer, mounted on box. 

Ergograph, with adjustable rod, and hand rest. 

Gas chamber. 

Moist chamber, glass cover. 

Muscle clamp. 

5 



66 PHYSIOLOGY AT HAKVARD 

Lever, heavy muscle. 

, light muscle. 

Muscle warmer. 

Nerve holder, see adjustable plate. 

Kheochord. 

Scale pan, large. 

pan, small. 

Tuning fork. 

Wash bottle, for carbon dioxide generator. 

Weights, 10 one-gram. 

, 100 ten-gram. 

Work adder. 

(Signed) 

For Department of Physiology . 



Form J. 

[List of apparatus liable to be broken.] 

Beakers . . . . . . . 20 cents 

Boot electrodes 10 " 

Capillary tube on electrometer .... 25 " 

Cover to moist chamber 20 " 

Gas chamber 10 " 

Glass plate 2 

Jar of Daniell cell 25 

Pipettes 3 " 

Stirring rod . . 2 " 

Tip to gas burner 2 " 



GENERAL LIBRARY 
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA BERKELEY 

RETURN TO DESK FROM WHICH BORROWED 

This book is due on the last date stamped below, or on the 

date to which renewed. 
Renewed books are subject to immediate recall. 

* H><4 r " ' " "" ~" 




AUG301955 

AU6 1 8 1955 

MAY 2 1 1963 
MAY 7 1963 



M* 



Sasssraagr 








l-100m-l,'54 ( 1887sl6) 476